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Kurdish Flag 
the Kurdish national Flag was used for the first time by Xoybûn Movement to represent the Kurdish campaign to liberation from the Ottoman moribund empire and was also introduced in Paris Peace Conference in 1919 in which The process of independence of Kurdistan was prepared as part of the Treaty of Sever with the Othman empire in 1920. in 1927 the flag was adopted by Xoybûn Movement as official flag for the Republic of Ararat the same flag was used in the Republic of Mahabad in 1945 with some edits and was published in Hawar magazine in 1936. in 1999 the flag becomes the official flag of Iraqi Kurdistan. 17th of December considered as the day of the Kurdish flag.

Serê Kaniyê 

Serê Kaniyê
 (Arabic: رأس العين‎ also spelled Ras al-Ain, Kurdish: Serê Kaniyê spelled Sare Ka-ney‎, Syriac: ܪܝܫ ܥܝܢܐ‎)

-one of Rojava cities, located in eastern Kobane on the border with Turkey, adjoining the Kurdish city of ceylanpinar
-One of the oldest civilizations in Upper Mesopotamia, the area of Serê Kaniyê has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic age (c. 8,000 BC) and the town was destroyed and rebuilt several times
-With the 1921 Treaty of Ankara Serê Kaniyê became a divided city when its northern part, today's Ceylanpınar, were ceded to Turkey.
-the city has a population of 29,347 (as of 2005) The city is inhabited predominantly by Kurds and Arabs with a significant number of Syriacs/Assyrians and a smaller number of Armenians and Chechens
-In late November 2012 jihadists of al-Nusra Front attacked positions of the Syrian Army and they took over the city.
On 21 July 2013, the YPG expelled the jihadists after a night of heavy fighting. On 21 January 2014, Serê Kaniyê officially became part of the newly founded Jazira Canton in the autonomous region of Rojava.


Qamişlo (Arabic: القامشلي‎‎, Kurdish: Qamişlo‎, Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܙܠܝ̈ܢ‎, English Qmishlo"House of Reeds")
-one of Rojava cities, located in eastern Kobane on the border with Turkey, adjoining the Kurdish city of Nusaybin
-According to the 2004 census, Qamişlo had a population of 184,231.
-Qamişlo is among the 10 largest cities in Syria by population
-Qamişlo is 680 km (420 mi) northeast of Damascus.
-many Kurdish activists see it as Rojava capital
-Qamişlo is an ethnically mixed city, inhabited predominantly by Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, and Armenians
-Qamişlo was also home to a significant Jewish community. The origin of the Jews of Qamishli, unlike the Jews of Damascus and Aleppo who are a mixture of Sephardi Jews and Musta'arabi Jews, In the 1930s the Jewish population of Qamişlo numbered 3,000. After the escalation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in 1947, the situation of the Jews of Qamişlo deteriorated. The exodus of Jews from Syria peaked due to violence
-The city dates back to the 1920s
-In March 2004, during a chaotic soccer match, a 2004 Qamişlo riots began when some people started praising Saddam Hussein, turning the match into political conflict against the Kurds. The riot expanded out of the stadium and weapons were used against people of Kurdish background. In the aftermath, at least 50 Kurds were killed as the Syrian security services took over the city.The event became known the "Qamişlo massacre"
then thousands of Kurdish people in Rojava cities such as Derik demonstrated in streets to protest the injustice situation of the Kurds in Syria, later the Kurdish parties calmed down the Angry crowds by telling them that they have made a deal with the Syrian regime...but some says that there was no deal and the Kurdish parties lied to the Kurdish people just to make them stop demonstrating....
-Qamişlo has an international airport, Qamishli Airport, with International Air Transport Association airport code KAC, Syrian Railways operated a freight and passenger railway service to other parts of Syria from the city



Efrîn spelled Eyf-ren (Arabic: عفرين, Kurdish: Efrîn‎; Syriac: ܥܦܪܝܢ‎)
-Efrîn is one of Rojava cities, located western of Kobane next to a bridge of the Aleppo road. The city is split into two distinct halves by the river
-Efrîn is a district, as well as a city, The total population of the district as of 2005, was recorded at 172,095 people, of whom 36,562 lived in the city of Efrîn itself
-the town and district are named for the Efrîn River
-The olive tree is the symbol of Efrîn. Efrîn is a major production center for olives. Olive oil pressing and textiles are some of the city's local industries.
-Syrian government forces withdrew from the city during the summer of 2012. The Popular Protection Units (commonly known as YPG) took control of the city soon afterward
-The town of Afrin originated in the 19th-century foundation as a market. In 1929, the number of permanent residents was merely 800, growing to 7,000 by 1968. The town was developed by France under the French mandate of Syria
-There was an outbreak of civil unrest on 21 March 1986, during which three people were killed by the police. In 1999, the arrest of Kurdish leader Abdullah Öcalan triggered renewed clashes between Kurdish protesters and the Syrian police.
-Efrîn Canton autonomous part of Syrian Kurdistan was declared on 29 January 2014
as a result of an agreement between Turkey and Russia, On 20 January 2018, the Turkish army using NATO Weapons and with help of thousand of Jihadist Mercenaries launched an Attack against the City.
the resistance of YPG/YPJ against that attack continued 58 days, On 18 March 2018 the Kurdish Fighters restrict from the City to "Shahba Canton" northern Allepo. 
after the capture of the city, the Turkish-backed Jihadists looted the city and destroyed numerous Kurdish symbols, including a statue of Kāve and kidnaped and killed hundreds of many civilians. 



Rmelan (Arabic: رميلان‎‎, Kurdish: Rimêlan‎, Syriac: ܪܡܝܠܐܢ‎) 
Administratively part of Derik District"al-Malikiyah"
Rmelan is a Kurdish town located in the east of Rojava "northeast of Syria" 
900 km northeast of the Syrian capital Damascus, 70 km east of Qamishlo, 30 km southwest of the district centre Derik"al-Malikiyah" and 0.5 km southwest of the sub-district centre Girkê Legê "Al-Muabbada"
the town took the name Rimêlan according to a Kurdish figure, 
Rimêlan‎ is the son of Deli agha son of second julo agha, the leader of the Kurdish clan "Abassa"
Rimêlan has an area of 5 km² and a population of 11,500, based on the 2009 official estimate
The population of the town is of mixed Arab, Kurd and Assyrian ethnicities
The town is famous for being one of the major centres of oil production in Syria. The first oil exploration works in Rmelan started in 1934.
Important Rmelan stations and Facilities:
Oil Station / Ger Zero Reservoir "Tel-Addas"
located about 10 km east of the outskirts of the village of Ger Zero "Tel-Addas". 
This station contains 20 reservoirs where the oil of the wells is collected and the oil is purified from the water and then pumped through pipes to the Homs refinery and the port of Tartus, where more than 1,700 wells
2-Power station "Gas Turbines"
located 18 km east of Rmelan
There are 6 turbines operated by gas, generating electricity, each turbine produce 20 MW, they belong only to Rmelan and their Oil wells
3-The Oil and Gas Technical Institute in Rumailan 
-was founded in 1969
-Two-year curriculum, Two specialties "Drilling wells - Oil production"
-The Institute able to accommodate from 75 to 170 students per year. The number of graduates from the institute has reached about 2300 students annually, out of which 50 are from outside Syria "from other Arab countries"
-The Institute offers students accommodation, food, transportation, scientific and recreational trips and some free medical services. "The student receives a monthly grant during his studies. In 2010, the institute was built with a new building area of 5880 m2 at a cost of 141 Syrian million pounds


Girkê Legê 

Girkê Legê (Arabic: المعبدة‎‎, Kurdish: Girkê Legê‎, Syriac: ܡܥܒܕܗ‎)
-Girkê Legê is a Kurdish town located in eastern Rojava "northeast of Syria" 23 km south of Derik, 65 km east of Qamishlo, 623 km northeast of the Syrian capital Damascus
and the town is 35 km from the Iraqi border and 15 km from the Turkish border
-Girkê Legê "Muabbada" had a population of 15,759 in the 2004 census
-The majority of the inhabitants of the town are Kurds with a large Arab minority
-Its construction dates back to 1934 and others say it was built in 1938
- the Ba'athist Party In the 1990s under president Hafez al-Assad changed the name of the town from Girkê Legê to Al-Muabbada "Arabization" until 24 July 2012 Syrian security forces withdrew from "Al-Muabbada" and returned under Kurdish control and since then they use the original name of the town which is Girkê Legê
-The town is characterized by its old cemetery located in the center of the town, which dates back hundreds of years to discover many ancient pottery and pottery during the process of digging graves and according to the testimonies of the people of the town there was a plaque next to the cemetery with French writings
-In 1978, the town was supplied with electricity by 72 wooden poles
-In 1983, Newroz was celebrated in the town for the first time.


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